Class:  Always refer to your Little Brown Handbook and don't forget the University has a Writing Resource Center you may utilize.
 
Jerry
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     USING AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) DOCUMENTATION FORMAT

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you are asked to use APA format, the booklet to consult is THE PUBLICATION
MANUAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (4th Edition).  A copy of
this manual is in the Writing Center (257 Morgan Hall) and Mabee Library.

Included here is a brief summary of APA style in citing references.

In your text:

	When using APA format, follow the author-date method of citation.
        Include the author's last name and year of publication in your text.

		- Smith (1992) compared reaction times . . . .
		- In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 1992) . . . .
		- In 1992, Smith compared reaction times . . . .

For Short Quotations:
	To indicate short quotations (fewer than 40 words) in your text,
enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.  Provide the author,
year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference
in the reference list.

	He stated, "The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied
	in this manner" (Smith, 1992, p. 276), but he did not clarify which
	behaviors were studied.

	Smith (1992) found that "the placebo effect disappeared when
	behaviors were studied in this manner" (p. 276).

For Long Quotations:
	Place quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of
typewritten lines, and omit the quotation marks.  Start the quotation on a new
line, indented five spaces from the left margin.  Type the entire quotation
double-spaced on the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent
paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.

   Smith (1992) found the following:

        The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this

        manner.  Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even

        when real drugs were administered.  Earlier studies conducted by the

        same group of researchers were clearly premature in attributing the

        results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)

	At the end of your paper, list in alphabetical order all the references
you cited in the text of your writing. (UNDERLINE books and journals/magazines
rather than using the tildes [squiggly lines] used in the examples below.)

For Periodicals:
Format includes name (last name first and initials rather than first name),
year of publication in parentheses, titles (only the first letter capital-
ized, with books and periodicals underlined), volume and page numbers.
Periods separate author, year, and title. Commas separate periodical and
volume number (issue number in parentheses).  A period follows page numbers.
Indent first line six spaces. (See examples/some exceptions below.)



     (one author)         Harlo, H. F.  (1983).  Fundamentals for preparing

                     psychology journal articles.  Journal of Comparative
                                                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     (two authors)        Atkins, R. C. & Schiffrin, R. M.  (1971).  The

                     control of short-term memory.  Scientific American,
                                                    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     225 (2), 82-90.
                     ~~~

     (no author)          The blood business.  (1972, September 11) Time,
                                                                    ~~~~~
                     117,  47-48.
                     ~~~~
     (newspaper           Eight APA journals initiate controversial blind
     article
     no author)      reviewing.  (1972, June).  APA Monitor, pp. 1, 5.
                                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~

     (magazine            Gardner, H.  (1981, December).  Do babies sing a
     article)
                     universal song?  Psychology Today, pp. 70-76.
                                      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     (monograph)          Rotter, J. B.  (1966).  Generalized expectancies for

                     internal versus external control of reinforcement.

                     Psychological Monographs, 80 (1, Serial No. 609).
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

For Books:
Format includes name (last name first and initials rather than first name),
year of publication in parentheses, title (only the first letter capital-
ized, with books and periodicals underlined), place of publication (followed
by a colon, then publisher (followed by a period). Periods separate author,
year, and title. Indent first line six spaces. (See examples/some
exceptions below.)


     (one author)         Bernstein, T. M.  (1965).  The careful writer:  A
                                                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     modern guide to English usage.  New York:  Athenaeum.
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



     (two authors)        Strunk, W. & White, E. B.  (1979).  The elements
                                                              ~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     of style (3rd ed.).  New York:  Macmillan.
                     ~~~~~~~~

     (institutional       British Psychiatric Association.  (1993).  Styles
     or corporate                                                    ~~~~~~
     author)         of paranoia. (Rev. ed.).  London:  Author.
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~

     (edited volume)      Maher, B. A. (Ed.).  (1964-1972).  Progress in
                                                             ~~~~~~~~~~~
                     experimental personality research (6 vols.).
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     New York:  Academic Press.

     (article in          Ries, A. H.  (1966).  Trends in physiological

     edited book)    psychology.  In E. Stellar & J. M. Sprague (Eds.),

                     Progress in physiological psychology (pp.  101-103).
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     New York:  Academic Press.

     (government          Clements, S. D.  (1966).  Minimal brain dysfunction
     publication)                                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                     in children (NINDS Monograph No. 3, U.S. Public
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~
                     Health Service Publication No. 1415).  Washington,

                     D. C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office.

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Originated by the Purdue Univ. Writing Lab. Modified by R. Sheldon, 22 Mar 95

--
Jerry Griffin, Ed.D.
UOP Online Faculty
University of Phoenix
GGriffin02@email.uophx.edu
jgriffin@inkpenpublishing.com